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外媒如何报道中国雾霾?这些国家的做法值得借鉴

时间:2016-12-23 12:13来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
最近几天,中国出现今年以来范围最广、持续时间最长、强度最强的雾霾天气。北京等20余城市拉响最高级别的空气重污染红色预警,多个城市空气质量指数爆表。 对于这次大面积的严重雾霾,各大媒体都进行了报道。 《中国日报》:雾霾笼罩首都,空气质量指数暴增

最近几天,中国出现今年以来范围最广、持续时间最长、强度最强的雾霾天气。北京等20余城市拉响最高级别的空气重污染红色预警,多个城市空气质量指数“爆表”。

对于这次大面积的严重雾霾,各大媒体都进行了报道。

《中国日报》:雾霾笼罩首都,空气质量指数暴增

美联社:中国北方城市遭遇雾霾,工厂停工车辆限行

法新社:重度雾霾笼罩中国,未来几天或将更严重

下面双语君(微信ID:chinadaily_mobile)就带着大家一起精读下这些新闻报道。

雾霾来袭


美联社

Thick, gray smog fell over Beijing on Tuesday, choking China's capital in a haze that spurred authorities to cancel flights and close some highways in emergency measures to cut down on air pollution.

浓厚的灰色雾霾20日席卷北京,首都一片朦胧。为减轻空气污染,相关部门采取紧急措施,取消航班,关闭部分高速公路。

《今日美国》

Major cities across northern China choked Monday under a blanket of smog so thick that industries were ordered shut down and air and ground traffic was disrupted.

中国北方主要城市19日被重度雾霾笼罩,工厂被迫停工,空中和地面交通中断。

《中国日报》

Heavy smog continued to plague vast areas of China with alarmingly high air quality index readings on Monday.

19日,严重雾霾继续困扰中国多地,空气质量指数达到惊人高度。

CNN

A dangerous gray haze descended on Northeast China over the weekend, choking off schools, flights and industry and endangering citizens simply trying to breathe.

危险的灰色雾霾周末降临中国东北部,学校停课,航班中断,工厂停工,市民呼吸也受到威胁。

红色预警启动


CNN

China saw the smog coming and last week issued its first red alert of the year for 23 cities.

上周,中国预测到雾霾来袭,在23个城市发布了年内首个红色预警。

As of Saturday, the smog covered 10.1 million square kilometers, according to the country's Ministry of Environmental Protection.

中国环保部的数据显示,截至17日,雾霾已覆盖1010万平方公里。

美联社

Beijing and much of industrial northern China are in the midst of a "red alert," the highest level in China's four-tiered pollution warning system.

北京及许多中国北方工业城市目前处于“红色预警”状态,这是中国污染预警系统四个级别中的最高级。

《中国日报》

In 24 cities, mainly in North and Central China, air pollution on Sunday hit "hazardous" levels. Readings in eight of those cities surpassed the upper limit of 500 on the air quality index.

24个城市18日空气污染达“危险”级别,这些城市主要位于中国北部和中部。其中8个城市空气质量指数超过500上限。

Severe smog is forecast to persist and get worse and to reach a peak on Wednesday.

预计严重雾霾仍将持续恶化,并在21日达到峰值。

各地采取措施


CNN

In Tianjin, officials shut down expressways, increased public transportation capacity by 15% and ordered cars to run on alternate days based on whether the vehicles' license plates end in odd or even numbers.

天津关闭了高速公路,把公共交通承载量增加15%,并实行单双号限行。

Beijing also restricted automobile traffic, while in Shandong Province, officials closed toll gates on four expressways.

北京同样实行了交通限行,山东省关闭了四条高速公路的收费站。

Other measures undertaken by affected cities include suspending construction projects, canceling classes for kindergartens and primary schools and closing or reducing production at some factories.

其他措施包括,暂停施工、幼儿园和小学停课、一些工厂停止或减少生产。

《中国日报》

All these cities have placed stringent restrictions on industrial emissions and limited the use of vehicles. However, inspectors encountered many violations over the weekend.

所有这些城市都对工业排放和车辆使用进行了严格限制,不过周末仍有许多违规现象发生。

美联社

More than 700 companies stopped production in Beijing and traffic police were restricting drivers by monitoring their license plate numbers.

北京700多所工厂停工,交通按车牌号限行。

Authorities have even removed charcoal grills from restaurants and banned spray painting in parts of the city.

餐馆木炭烤架被取缔,部分地区禁止喷绘。

NASA科学家分析中国雾霾

中国的雾霾太严重,已经被美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的科学家用来做研究对象了。

在下面这个视频中,NASA科学家,Bryan N. Duncan博士,做了一个“A Tale of Three Cities”的演讲。

他研究了北京、洛杉矶和亚特兰大三地的空气质量和治理过程。从太空的角度分析:为什么中国雾霾这么严重?以及美国空气污染的历史、现状和解决办法。

视频中,Duncan博士这样分析中国雾霾产生的原因:

In the last several decades they've undergone an industrial revolution, and this has been fueled by China's cheap and abundant coal.

过去几十年间,中国经历了工业改革。其支柱是中国廉价且储量巨大的煤矿。

And along with this industrialization, there's been an increase in urbanization as well as the standard of living.

伴随着工业化,城镇化得以加速,人们的生活质量水平日益提高。

So the Chinese people are manufacturing and consuming more goods.

所以中国人正在生产并消耗更多产品。

But more importantly, they are exporting many of these goods, and is considered to be the world's manufacturing hub.

但更重要的是,其中很多商品用来出口。中国也被认为是全球的制造中心。

When you burn coal, sulfur dioxide is released, and it's a precursor to acid rain.

当你燃烧煤矿时,就会释放出二氧化硫。这是酸雨的先兆。

And it also is a contributor to these particulates that plague Chinese cities.

这也是笼罩着很多中国城市的颗粒物的又一大成分。

NASA卫星监测到北京上空被大量燃煤产生的二氧化硫(sulfur dioxide)笼罩。

和美国对比一下,可以看出中国污染有多严重。而美国污染稍微严重一点的地区是俄亥俄河谷,因为这里是美国发电站最集中的地区。

但当地的污染物仍然比北京少很多,这是因为:

It's much lower in the US because it's required by law for these power plants to operate scrubber technology.

美国法律要求这些发电站使用过滤技术。

These scrubbers literally scrub or remove the SO2, sulfur dioxide, from the effluent of power plant before it's released to the atmosphere.

这些过滤器会在发电站将排放物排放到空气前将其过滤,去除二氧化硫。

The problem here is the scrubber technology is incredibly expensive to operate.

但问题是这种过滤技术非常昂贵。

So places like China and India simply can't afford to.

像中国、印度这样的国家负担不起。

实际上,几十年前,美国的空气污染也很严重。

科学家发现当时雾霾的主要成分是臭氧(ozone)。

而臭氧的形成主要来自三部分:

1. sunlight 阳光

阳光催化各种产生能量的化学反应。

2. fuel burning 燃油燃烧

煤炭和汽油燃烧时,产生氮氧化物(nitrogen oxides)。这些都是排气管和烟囱里排放出来的。

3. petroleum products 石油产品

主要来自于汽车尾气和工厂排放的挥发性有机化合物。

研究清楚臭氧来源后,美国政府就对症下药。

Control the emissions of volatile organic compounds from cars and factories.

最初,控制汽车和工厂排放的挥发性有机化合物。

Control nitrogen oxide emissions from power plants and cars. Cars were required to have catalytic converters installed on them.

之后,控制发电厂和汽车的氮氧化物排放。要求汽车配备催化式排气净化器。

就这样,20年内,美国的污染物降低了将近60%。

而且是在人口、汽车数量和能源消耗都在增加的情况下降低了污染。

这样的成功案例值得我们思考和学习。

世界各地如何治霾

空气污染不仅是我国面临的重大环境议题,也是一个世界性的话题。

除了上面看到的美国治霾的成功案例,我们还可以看看世界其他城市都是怎样应对空气污染的。

伦敦

控污减排全面治霾

1952年12月5日,一场令人窒息的烟雾将伦敦街道牢牢罩住。大雾散去的4天后,4000多人丧命。那次“雾都劫难”后,英国政府誓言驱散雾霾,并出台了世界上第一部《清洁空气法》,开始治理空气污染。

?50-60年代:设立无烟尘区,严控不洁燃料

The Clean Air Act introduced a number of measures to reduce air pollution, especially by introducing "smoke control areas" in some towns and cities in which only smokeless fuels could be burnt.

《清洁空气法》引进了一系列举措来控制空气污染,其中最为重要的就是在城镇设立"无烟尘区",只许烧无烟煤。

In 1968 its amendment ordered industries burning coal, gas or other fuels to use tall chimneys. The higher the chimney, the better the dispersal of the air pollution.

1968年,《清洁空气法》修正案要求烧煤和天然气等其他燃料的工厂必须使用高烟囱。烟囱建得越高,空气污染就能更快地驱散。

?进入21世纪:收“拥堵费”设“低排区”

In 2003, the city of London started charging a fee for driving private automobiles in its central area during weekdays as a way to reduce traffic congestion and raise revenues to fund transport improvements.

2003年,伦敦市开始对工作日穿行市中心的私车收费,以缓解交通拥堵,并募集资金对交通情况做进一步改善。

In 2008, the Mayor of London introduced the world's first citywide Low Emission Zone (LEZ). It restricts circulation of the most polluting heavy diesel vehicles in most of Greater London.

2008年,伦敦市长设立了世界上首个全市范围的低排放区。该计划限制污染最严重的柴油车在大伦敦大部分地区通行,通过对想进入大伦敦地区的重污染车收费,来抑制污染车型的使用。

The New Bus for London, entering service in 2012, incorporates the latest hybrid technology and is 40% more fuel efficient than conventional diesel buses.

2012年,伦敦新巴士开始运营。新公交巴士采用了最新的混合动力技术,燃料利用率比传统的柴油巴士提高了40%。

巴黎

控制尾气排放

巴黎不久前也遭遇了严重的空气污染。巴黎人的做法是尽量减少汽车尾气排放量,等待西风吹散污染。

?公共交通免费,车辆单双号限行

Officials swung into action, waiving charges for public transport and restricting the number of cars allowed on roads, alternately barring those with odd and even license plates.

政府立即采取行动,取消了公共交通收费,采取单双号限行制度限制在道路上通行的车辆数量。

?柴油车禁止上路

At the same time Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo joined officials from Madrid, Athens and Mexico City in announcing plans to get all diesel vehicles off the roads by 2025.

同时,继马德里、雅典以及墨西哥城之后,巴黎市市长安娜-伊达尔戈也宣布,计划在2025年前禁止所有柴油车上路。

柏林

过滤汽车尾气

柏林是欧洲空气最好的城市之一。柏林采取了多种方法对抗空气污染,其中包括为污染车辆安装过滤装置、改善公共交通设施等。

?“低排区”覆盖广,柴油车需过滤,停车场收费高

A Low Emission Zone (LEZ) was introduced in 2008. The LEZ covers the inner city: 88 km2 and one third of inhabitants.

2008年设立“低排区”,覆盖了全城88平方公里和三分之一居民。

Berlin has cleaned up its own fleet, installing pollution filters on buses and garbage trucks, and imposed tough rules on heavy goods vehicles.

柏林整顿了该市的车辆,在公交车和垃圾车上安装了污染过滤装置,并对重型货车实施严格的规定。

No congestion charging system exists in Berlin, but the city operates an extensive parking management: the number of paid parking spaces increased to 83,000 in 2009 and 93,000 in 2012.

柏林没有“拥堵费”,但是停车管理较严。收费停车场2009年只有8.3万个,2012年增加到9.3万。

?改善公共交通设施,鼓励骑行

In the past years, the city has concentrated on renovating old network sections and stations, has increased public transport frequencies and has introduced measures for speed increase of buses and trams.

在过去数年中,柏林专注于更新老旧的公共交通网段和车站,提高巴士和有轨电车的频次和速度。

The city has also promoted cycling and walking. It improved the infrastructure for bikes in many aspects.

此外,柏林还鼓励骑行和步行,在很多方面改善了自行车的基础设施。

克拉科夫

禁止燃煤取暖

波兰是全欧洲污染最严重的国家之一,而克拉科夫则是全波兰境内空气质量最差的城市。为改善空气质量,克拉科夫人决定禁止使用燃煤炉来供暖。

After a long legal fight, the city is now moving forward with a ban on burning coal for home heating, to take effect in September 2019.

经过长时间的法律斗争,该市目前正在推进燃煤取暖禁令,将于2019年9月生效。

纽约

改进供热系统

美国人也注意到了波兰人发现的问题,纽约市也将对其供热系统进行改进,以减少污染的排放。

New York has also targeted heating systems. After an analysis found that 1% of buildings burning the dirtiest kinds of fuel oil, were producing more soot than all the city's traffic, officials made plans to gradually ban their use and to help landlords convert.

纽约也瞄准了供热系统。一项分析发现,有1%的建筑燃烧的是最不清洁的燃油,其产生的烟尘比全市的交通系统更多。纽约市官员们计划逐步禁止使用这种燃油,并帮助房主改建取暖系统。

洛杉矶

提升汽车清洁度

洛杉矶曾遭遇过严重的“光化学烟雾”污染,罪魁祸首就是汽车尾气。该市是美国汽车文化最发达的城市,目前正着力加强监管、提升汽车的清洁度。

A stringent air quality regulation in America has benefited Los Angeles. A statewide crackdown on dirty diesel lorries and a push to expand use of zero-emission vehicles are also a big part of the story. The decades of regulation have made American cars 99% cleaner than they were 40 years ago.

美国执行严格空气质量监管对洛杉矶空气很有帮助。另外,在全国范围内强制取缔不清洁的柴油卡车以及扩大零排放车辆的使用,也帮助控制了空气污染。数十年的监管让美国的车辆比40年前清洁程度提升了99%。

从各国各城市的应对策方式上,我们可以看出,目前人们广泛认同并行之有效的策略基本包括控制污染物排放、加强空气质量监管、寻找新型清洁能源、保护市民健康等。

我国在这些层面都做出了努力,也逐渐取得了成效。希望在不久的将来,我们能天天享受洁净的空气,让蓝天白云的日子重回我们身边。

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